A public blockchain as the infrastructure for a decentralized internet.
- Delegated Proof of Stake (“DPoS”) mechanism in which 27 Super Representatives rotate every 6 hours.
- Relatively low amount of stake (9,999 TRX) required to become a Super Representative candidate.
- Developers can access full nodes running in the cloud provided by TronGrid.
- Supports TRC-20 based USDT since March 2019.
- Mainnet launched May 31, 2018.
Key Features of the TRON
- TRON aims to utilize DPoS to offer high TPS and scalability
- Smart contracts written in Solidity, making it easy for Ethereum developers to move over
- 394 dApps already running on TRON mainnet
- Introduced a range of tools to help developers move over to the TRON network
- TronGrid provides full nodes running in the cloud; developers can have direct aceess to the TRON network without having to run nodes themselves
- Tronlink provides wallet service on Chrome extension, iOS and Android
What is TRON?
TRON (or “the Project”) is a public chain dedicated to providing the underlying infrastructure which enables developers to create smart contracts and decentralized applications, freely publish, own, and store data and other content. TRON deploys a DPoS consensus mechanism to avoid the issue of low transaction throughput times and high transaction fee amongst Proof of Work (PoW) public chains.
Token Governance & Use of Funds
TRON holds its funds in cold storage with multi-sig wallets. The foundation's wallet can be found here.
The TRON team decided not to publicly share about its use of funds at this point.
TRX Token Overview & Use Cases
TRX is the core utility token of the TRON network. A few examples of the use cases for the TRX token include:
- Payments for services and goods provided by service providers and merchants on the TRON network
- Payments for fees and commissions for running native smart contracts
- Exchanging for 3rd party issued Tron Classic (“TRC”) network tokens
- Freezing TRX to delegate energy towards running smart contracts or voting for Super Representatives
TRON adopts a 3-layer architecture divided into Core Layer, Storage Layer, and Application Layer. The TRON protocol adheres to Google Protobuf, which intrinsically supports multi-language extension.
There are several modules in the core layer, including smart contracts, account management, and consensus. A stack-based virtual machine is implemented on TRON and an optimized instruction set is used. In order to better support dApp developers, Solidity was chosen as the smart contract language, followed by future support of other advanced languages.
TRON designed a distributed storage protocol consisting of Block Storage and State Storage. The notion of a graph database was introduced into the design of the storage layer to better meet the need for diversified data storage in the real world.
- Blockchain Storage: TRON blockchain storage chooses to use LevelDB, which is developed by Google and proven successful with many companies and projects. It supports arbitrary byte arrays as both keys and values, singular get, put and delete, batched put and delete, bi-directional iterators, and simple compression using the Snappy algorithm.
- State Storage: TRON has a KhaosDB in the full-node memory that can store all the newly forked chains generated within a certain period of time and supports witnesses to switch from their own active chain swiftly into a new main chain. It can also protect blockchain storage by making it more stable from being abnormally terminated in an intermediate state.
Since TRON enables smart contracts to be deployed and executed, developers can create a diverse range of dApps and customized wallets on TRON.
Blockchain & Network
As of April 24, 2019, the TRON network over 1,200 nodes, with a block height of over 8 million. Transactions per day have averaged at close to 2 million. There are also over 2.6 million total TRX accounts. There are roughly 60 transactions per block, with a block generated every 3 seconds. The block reward is 32 TRX.
The TRON consensus mechanism uses a Delegated Proof of Stake system in which 27 Super Representatives (“SRs”) produce blocks for the network. Every 6 hours, TRX account holders who freeze their accounts can vote for a selection of SR candidates, with the top 27 candidates deemed the SRs. Voters may choose SRs based on criteria such as projects sponsored by SRs to increase TRX adoption, and rewards distributed to voters. SRs’ accounts are normal accounts, but their accumulation of votes allows them to produce blocks.
The TRON protocol network generates one block every three seconds, with each block awarding 32 TRX to Super Representatives. A total of 336,384,000 TRX will be awarded annually to the 27 SRs. The specific calculation will be demonstrated in the following section.
Each time an SR finishes block production, rewards are sent to a sub-account in the super-ledger. SRs can check, but not directly make use of these TRX tokens.
A withdrawal can be made by each SR once every 24 hours, transferring the rewards from the sub-account to the specified SR account.
The three types of nodes on the TRON network are Witness Node, Full Node, and Solidity Node. Witness Nodes are set up by SRs and are mainly responsible for block production and proposal creation/voting. Full Nodes provide APIs and broadcast transactions and blocks. Solidity Nodes sync blocks from other Full Nodes and also provide indexable APIs.
Every account in the TRON network can apply and have the opportunity to become a Super Representative. Everyone can vote for SR candidates. The top 27 candidates with the most votes will become SRs with the right and obligation to generate blocks. The votes are counted every 6 hours and the SRs will change accordingly. To prevent malicious attacks, there is a cost to becoming an SR candidate. When applying to become a SR, 9,999 TRX will be burned from the applicant’s account. Once the tokens are burned, such account can join the SR election process.
TRON Power, or TP, is required for all votings on TRON network. One can acquire TRON Power by freeze their TRON tokens
TP is calculated in the following way: 1 TP = 1 TRX frozen to get bandwidth
Every account in the TRON network has the right to vote for their own SRs. After the release (unfreeze, available after 3 days), users will not have any frozen assets and lose all TP accordingly. As a result, all votes become invalid for the ongoing and future voting rounds unless TRX is frozen again to vote.
The TRON network only records the most recent vote, which means that every new vote will negate all previous votes.
Proposal Creation, Voting, and Withdrawal
Only SR accounts have the right to propose a change in dynamic network parameters. Once a proposal is created, SRs will vote for it and any member who does not vote in time will be considered as a veto. The proposal is active for 3 days after it is created. The vote can be changed or retrieved during the 3-day voting window. Once the period ends, the proposal will either pass (19+ votes) or fail (and end).
Products & Metrics
TronGrid provides full nodes running in the cloud so that a developer does not have to setup a node him or herself in order to work with Tron. TronGrid APIs allow developers to query events, transactions, assets and other blockchain data. Since the launch of TronGrid v.2 at the beginning of 2019, there has been a steady increase of traffic with occasional peaks due to dApp launches, averaging over 12,000 requests per second, over 1 billion requests per day. The average response time for querying events on TronGrid v.2 - the biggest demand from the community, has constantly been below 100ms. TronGrid v.3, with new features and another major performance improvement, is in the alpha testing phase as of April 17, 2019 and will be soon released to the entire community.
TronLink is a Tron wallet that runs as a Chrome extension, as well as on iOS and Android. It can be integrated into other dApps and can be used to send and receive TRX, TRC10 and TRC20 tokens.
Social Community Overview & Strategy
The TRON team lists 4 focuses when it comes to community growth and development: online engagement, regional outreach, developer community, and education campaign.
- The team states that they prioritize community engagement, and considers interacting with community members and addressing their problems as an important strategy in gaining community support. The team also has been, and will continue to share development progress with the community.
- TRON states that the Project has developed strong relationships with Super Representatives and strategic partners, who host meetups and events and greatly extends TRON’s outreach. The team also mentioned that they have been identifying and working with TRON advocates and power users, particularly in areas which they have less of a physical presence of.
- The TRON team provides one-on-one support to projects working with TRON. The team has engineers on-call to provide technical support on Discord. The team claims to make consistent efforts in creating clear technical documentation. In 2018, the team launched TRON Accelerator, in which a total of $1 million of grants were given out. The team has also launched a 100 million USD fund named TRON Arcade for gaming related dApp development.
- TRON also launched its education campaign in the beginning of 2019. This campaign includes videos and articles on topics such as what blockchain is, token economics, and many more. The Project has also hosted a series of events where they invited established figures in the field to speak. In January 2019, TRON hosted NiTROn, a summit that illustrated what was happening in the blockchain space and explored what was to come. Kobe Bryant and Jazz Kang were two of the keynote speakers.